What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a disorder that causes malignant (cancer) cells to develop in the prostate tissues.
The prostate is a male reproductive system gland. It is located slightly below the bladder and in front of the rectum (the organ that collects and empties urine) (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and covers a portion of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that is a component of sperm. Male reproductive and urinary system anatomy, including the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs.
Prostate cancer is most common in men over the age of 50. In the United States, one out of every eight men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer symptoms include a weak urine flow or frequent urinating.
These and other signs and symptoms could be the result of prostate cancer or another ailment. See your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
- Having difficulty initiating the flow of pee.
- Urination regularly (especially at night).
- Having difficulty completely emptying the bladder.
- Urine flow that is weak or intermittent (“stop-and-go”).
When prostate cancer is found in an advanced stage, the following symptoms may occur:
- Back, hip, or pelvic pain that does not go away.
- Anaemia causes shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, and pale complexion.
Other illnesses may provide similar symptoms. The prostate may enlarge and restrict the urethra or bladder as men age. This could lead to urination issues or sexual issues. Although the illness is not cancer, surgery may be required. It is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or other prostate issues may resemble those of prostate cancer.
How to analyze prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is diagnosed through tests that analyze the prostate and blood.
The following tests and procedures are possible:
- Physical exam and health history: An examination of the body to examine general signs of health, including the appearance of lumps or anything else that appears strange. A history of the patient’s health habits, as well as previous diseases and treatments, will be taken.
- Digital rectal exam (DRE): A rectum examination. The doctor or nurse inserts a greased, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate for lumps or abnormal areas via the rectal wall.
- PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) test: A blood test that determines the level of PSA in the prostate. PSA is a chemical produced by the prostate that may be found in elevated levels in the blood of men with prostate cancer. PSA levels may also be elevated in men who have a prostate infection, inflammation, or BPH (an enlarged, but noncancerous, prostate).
- PSMA PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan: An imaging process used to detect prostate cancer cells that have progressed beyond the prostate, into bone, lymph nodes, or other organs. A cell-targeting chemical linked to radioactive material is injected into the body and travels through the bloodstream for this operation. It binds to a protein on the surface of prostate cancer cells called prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). A PET scanner detects large concentrations of the radioactive material and pinpoints the location of prostate cancer cells in the body. A PSMA PET scan can assist diagnose prostate cancer that has returned or progressed to other places of the body. It may also be utilized to aid with treatment planning.
- Transrectal ultrasound: A procedure in which a finger-sized probe is introduced into the rectum to examine the prostate. The probe is used to create echoes by reflecting high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off inside tissues or organs. The echoes combine to generate a picture of body tissues known as a sonogram. During a biopsy, transrectal ultrasonography may be employed. This is referred to as a transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy.
- Transrectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A process that uses a powerful magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create a sequence of detailed images of locations within the body. A radiofrequency probe is placed into the rectum near the prostate. This allows the MRI equipment to produce sharper images of the prostate and surrounding tissue. A transrectal MRI is performed to determine whether cancer has progressed beyond the prostate into surrounding tissues. This method is also known as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI of the transrectal region may be used during a biopsy process. This is referred to as transrectal MRI-guided biopsy.
Vitamin and mineral supplements for prostate cancer:
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a type of treatment that is used in addition to (or instead of) mainstream treatments.
Prostate cancer affects around one out of every eight males in the United States. In the United States, it is the second most frequent cancer in men. Men with prostate cancer frequently use complementary and alternative medicine. According to studies on why men with prostate cancer choose CAM, their decision is based on their medical history, views about the safety and side effects of CAM compared to mainstream treatments, and a desire to feel in charge of their treatment.
Some foods, nutritional supplements, herbs, vitamins, and minerals are among the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments utilized by men with prostate cancer.
Research on the use of complementary and alternative medicine to treat prostate cancer has revealed the following:
- Men with prostate cancer are more likely than those without prostate cancer to take dietary supplements and eat foods.
- Men with prostate cancer who follow a healthy diet (eating lots of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vegetables, for example) are more likely to use nutritional supplements.
- Men with prostate cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to enhance their immune systems, improve their quality of life, and lessen their chance of recurrence, but only half of them tell their doctors about it.
Research on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer or prevent it from returning has revealed the following:
- A study of males with a family history of prostate cancer discovered that more than half used vitamins or other dietary supplements for prostate health or cancer prevention.
- A study of males visiting a prostate cancer screening clinic discovered that more than half of them took multivitamins and certain herbal supplements.
- According to one research of prostate cancer survivors, up to one-third used vitamins or minerals.
The research on the effect of single vitamin or mineral supplements on the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent. Vitamin E has been linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer with a stronger effect in smokers. However, compared to nonusers, current smokers and recent quitters who drank at least 100 IU (International Unit) of supplement vitamin E per day had a lower risk of metastatic or fatal prostate cancer.
However, two large prospective cohort studies found no link between vitamin E supplementation and prostate cancer risk, and its effect was not significantly affected by smoking status. There was no link between vitamin E consumption and the incidence of prostate cancer in our study, independent of smoking status. More recently, findings from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Study indicate that neither vitamin E nor selenium had any benefit in the prevention of prostate cancer.
The few studies that have looked at the effects of beta-carotene and selenium on the risk of prostate cancer have come up empty. Participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study who received beta-carotene had a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer than those who did not. However, in the Physicians’ Health Study, 50 mg of beta-carotene supplementation on alternate days was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. We discovered an inverse relationship between 10 or more years of beta-carotene supplement use and prostate cancer risk, but it was not statistically significant.
Many epidemiologic studies have looked at folate and the risk of prostate cancer, with inconclusive results. Two case-control studies assessing plasma folate concentrations in connection to prostate cancer indicated that high circulating folate levels were related to a slight but non-significant increase in risk, whereas one found no influence of folate on prostate cancer risk. In a large dietary case-control research with 1,294 incident prostate cancer cases, folate consumption was related to a lower risk of prostate cancer, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.85) for the highest vs. lowest percentile of folate consumption.
According to certain research, increased intraprostatic zinc levels may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by suppressing prostate cancer cell proliferation or inhibiting tumor cell invasion. According to studies comparing zinc concentrations in normal and malignant prostate tissue, cancer cells have a zinc level that is 60-70% lower.
Vitamin D and prostate cancer
According to some studies, adequate vitamin D levels may lessen the risk or severity of prostate cancer. The evidence, however, remains inconclusive.
The ability of vitamin D to inhibit cancer growth is widely recognized. Nonetheless, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of prostate cancer remains debatable.
Some studies suggest that high doses of vitamin D may improve prostate cancer treatment outcomes, while others find no such correlation. Vitamin D should not be used in place of traditional prostate cancer therapy.
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