Overview Rotavirus (RV)
When we heard about the fact that viruses do exist in an environment and they remain inactive until something makes them active. They require a host body so when they become active they can be responsible for fatal health conditions issues for that host body.
The Rotavirus is one of them, the name somehow creates a picture similar to rotation, and the structure of the virus under microscopic zoom comes out to be as a wheel. The rounding movement of the virus is mainly responsible for severe acute gastroenteritis with diarrhea and vomiting.
Gastroenteritis is a condition in which the intestinal lining gets swollen because of some virus, bacteria, or parasite. It is most commonly known as ‘stomach flu’ as well.
The symptoms can be categorized as diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, cramping, fever, nausea, and a headache.
It happens mostly to infants or young children. Older children or people can also come under its effect if they are exposed to it.
How it is communicable?
Well, rotavirus is a very serious communicable disease, it spread through physical as well as nonphysical contact with the infected person. When the person who is infected by it, somehow gets indirect as well as indirect contact with the person. Direct contact in terms of the unwashed hand of the infected person after he uses the washroom. Indirect contact is the surfaces that are contaminated by the hands of the infected person.
Moreover, these are some communicable methods or ways that can be described as;
- Direct contact with the person who has the virus.
- Contaminated food or water.
- Unwashed hands after going to the bathroom or changing diapers.
So these are how it can get spread among others. You can avoid these contacts by taking measures. These measures are very necessary otherwise they can create problems for your loved ones.
The infants and the young children are very prone to medical conditions such as infectious diseases, deficiency diseases, hereditary diseases, and physiological diseases.
One needs to be extra cautious while considering their infants or young children.
Proper examination and proper diagnosis of the problem are very important. Improper diagnosis or examination of the patient can cause life-threatening situations.
When we talk about analyzing the symptoms of stomach flu, we need to keep in mind that most of these symptoms are similar to different diseases. The right amount of treatment, as well as medical help, can only be achieved through the proper diagnosis of the patient. Though if one is going or suffering from these should need to contact their doctors immediately.
- If a person is feeling unwell and has fever, vomiting, or severe diarrhea (having large numbers of loose stool in less than one to two hours) and ages above 2 years should consult the doctors within two days of these symptoms.
- A child under 2 and having severe diarrhea (loose stool) with vomiting and severe fever for the past 12 hours. He should get medical help at that very instance.
- Symptoms become even more severe if diarrhea (loose stool) turns out to be bloody or tarry.
- The vomit of the patient seems to be bloody or tarry then again that person requires medical assistance at that very movement.
- If the person develops severe and sudden abdominal pain then he or she needs to go for medical assistance.
- There will be symptoms of dehydration as well which makes the patient feel dried or thirsty.
There are some extreme conditions or symptoms in which immediate medical assistance must be given, these are as follows;
- If there is little or no urination.
- If there is extreme thirst experienced by the patient.
- If there are inadequate amounts of tears present or no amount of tears present in the eyes.
- Muscle weakness.
All these can be treated with the right measures and precautions.
Examining the problem of Rotavirus
Let us examine how deadly this Rotavirus is. Rotavirus is deadly enough to affect the health of your loved ones. Though it can be treated and prevented if the right steps are taken at the right time. We know that like most viruses Rotavirus also has a vaccination, this vaccination helps the host body to fight off the virus and prevent it from happening.
The vaccine acts as a barrier, if the host is exposed to the surroundings which are affected by the contamination of the Rotavirus it will not allow it to get itself activated in that body in literal terms which are vaccinated. Because viruses are not living organisms they are not like bacteria who live and die. Hence viruses don’t die because they are not alive in the very first place, that is why the process of prevention can be done but the process of the termination can not be done for them.
If we talk about the severity of the Rotavirus or how badly it affects it, the data provided shows that each year, the Rotavirus patient number was approximately 111 million, which were treated at home-care, out of the 25 million were the clinic visits and 2 million were hospitalized. Among these, deaths due to Rotavirus lie around 440,000 (in children less than 5 years of age). 
The data shows that, after the introduction of the vaccine, the virus is responsible for around 200,000 emergency room visits, 55,000 hospitalizations, and 60 to 65 deaths each year in the U.S. and worldwide. 
Rotavirus is a very contagious disease. The virus is present in the excreta of the infected person and can remain on those contaminated surfaces which is often used by many. These surfaces might be touched by the person who is not yet infected, though he or she will get infected by touching them. So in the case of children it happens like this, the infected contaminated some object or some surface, the uninfected child touched that object or that surface, the hands by which he got into contact with the latter unknowingly put those hands in his or her mouth or ate with it. Hence it results in the transmission of the virus.
The spread of Rotavirus is very common in schools or daycare centers, children do not know who is infected or who is not, they play together with the same things which become the viable source of the transmission of the Rotavirus. Moreover, the people who are in charge of these schools or daycare centers are responsible for the routine of those children. They take care of the routine of children, children comprising both the infected and uninfected, and they act as a medium for the transmission of the virus among them. As if they change the diapers without washing their hands and afterward as well.
The symptoms of Rotavirus can last up to eight days. It includes fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and frequent, watery loose diarrhea. The situation becomes serious if diarrhea can cause dehydration, and because of dehydration the hospitalization becomes very must if not get hospitalized in time then death.
The best prevention or medical assistance we can give is the vaccination.
The Rotavirus has two vaccines- RotaTeq(RV5) and Rotarix(RV1). Both the vaccines are taken to be orally not as shots. The major difference between them is the dosage.
There are three doses. If we talk about RotaTeq they should be given at the age of 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Rotarix only requires two doses and they are given at the age of 2 months and 4 months. The results of the vaccination show that it prevents about 74% of Rotavirus infections. Moreover, the prevention of being hospitalized is reduced to 96%.
When to call a doctor?
Rotavirus infection starts usually within the time of two days after exposure to the virus. The early or the foremost symptoms which can be observed are fever and vomiting, followed by three to seven days of watery diarrhea. The infection can cause stomach pain as well. If things are not turning in the right direction and the situation becomes worst like:
- Constant vomiting.
- Frequent diarrhea with watery loose stool for 24 hours or longer.
- Unable to retain the fluids in the body.
- Having continuous fever of 102°F or 104°F (40°C) or higher.
- Having any signs like dehydration, including dry mouth, crying without tears, little or no urination, unusual sleepiness, or unresponsiveness.
Hospitalization is only required if the situation is very serious and the infections have caused severe dehydration.
Is the Rotavirus vaccine safe?
Yes, the Rotavirus vaccine is safe. Because of the proper testing on more than 70,000 individuals, it is found to be safe.
Is there any limited audience for the vaccination?
The case in which any child who had an allergic reaction to an earlier dose of the Rotavirus vaccine should not be given any more doses. If your baby has a moderate or severe illness at the time the vaccination is scheduled, wait until the baby has recovered before being vaccinated.
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